Directions (1-8): In the following passage there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. These numbers are again printed below the passage and against each, five words are suggested, one of which fits the blank appropriately. Find out the appropriate word in each case.
When the Soviet Union collapsed in 1992, and India’s economy was heading into what appeared to be an —–(1)—– tailspin, we were fortunate to have a farsighted and pragmatic Prime Minister in PV Narasimha Rao. It was he who pulled us out of the crisis by resorting to economic liberalisation and a —–(2)—— foreign policy across our western and eastern shores. Narasimha Rao’s significant contributions in foreign policy were his decisions to integrate India’s economy closely with fast-growing economies such as Japan, South Korea and Asean to our east, while establishing full diplomatic ties with Israel. This move asserted to all our Islamic neighbours that India could not be taken for granted on the issue of Jammu and Kashmir, by their backing anti-India resolutions on Kashmir, in the OIC. Narasimha Rao’s reforms have stood the test of time.
The dawn of 2018 is marked by two significant developments in India’s foreign policy, across its ‘Indo-Pacific neighbourhood’, extending from the Gulf of Aden to the South China Sea. Prime Minister Netanyahu of Israel paid a high-profile and successful visit to India, ——(3)——- increasing prospects for ties in defence, agriculture and industry. This visit manifested the success of the ‘Look West’ approach of the Modi government which has dehyphenated relations with Israel from its relations with its Arab/Islamic neighbours. Prime Minister Narendra Modi is scheduled to visit Palestine later this year.
India rightly joined the vast majority of countries in the UN to ——(4)—— the Trump administration’s ill-advised effort to declare the whole of Jerusalem as the undivided capital of Israel. The holy city is, after all, regarded as the heart of Judaism, Christianity and Islam. The international status of West Jerusalem remains a seriously ——(5)—— issue. We have sensibly positioned ourselves to have equally good relations with all major powers across our western shores, notably Iran, Iraq, Egypt, Israel and Saudi Arabia.
This Republic Day we will host all the ten leaders of Asean to mark the 25th anniversary of our association with that organisation as a dialogue partner and participant in the annual Asean-sponsored East Asia Summit that includes India, the US, China, Japan, South Korea Australia, and Russia. These fora now serve as crucial elements in our policies across what is called the Indo-Pacific region.
An important aspect of this ——(6)——- visit by Asean leaders is going to be a picturesque projection of the cultural bonds linking India and Asean, with unique ——(7)—— of the Ramayana by dance troupes from Thailand, Laos, Myanmar, Indonesia and Malaysia. There will be discussions on further promoting economic, cultural and security cooperation bilaterally and multilaterally. It is an imaginative effort to enable us to work individually and collectively on the challenges posed by an increasingly assertive China. It will also provide an opportunity for India to accelerate economic and security cooperation with the largest most populous Asean member, Indonesia.
China today has maritime boundary disputes arising from its unilateral actions and territorial claims on Japan, the Philippines, Taiwan, Brunei, Malaysia, Indonesia and Vietnam. Beijing has used force to construct artificial Islands to back its claims and arbitrarily rejected the ruling of the International Court of Justice on its irredentist maritime boundary claims on the Philippines, showing utter disregard for the provisions of international law.
Given its readiness to ——-(8)——- provide credit for infrastructure and other projects at a time when the US is showing signs of disengaging from multilateral economic engagement across the Indo-Pacific, some Asean members such as Brunei, Thailand and Malaysia appear reluctant to challenge Chinese power. Others like Laos and Cambodia do not appear uncomfortable at all with Chinese policies. Only Vietnam and Indonesia appear prepared to assert their rights on territorial issues. India will have to see how it can work with Indonesia and Vietnam to meet the challenges China poses, while keeping Singapore discreetly on its side.
- India is not alone in such difficulties. Countries worldwide find existing governmental systems unable to cope with contemporary challenges or people’s expectations, some even with basic needs.
- Our social tensions need sensitive healing, but suffer ever harsher divisiveness; our political institutions and processes need to address rising challenges but sink ever deeper in backwardness;
- democracy has never had many practitioners. A few North Atlantic states apart, most even in Europe, claiming to be exemplars, actually became democracies after India. Almost all colonised states started as democracies,
- our administrative machinery desperately needs efficiency but corrodes into dysfunctionality; we live in a turbulent, dangerous world but have neither time nor expertise to attend to it.
- Particularly alarming is the condition in democracies, where the ideals and concepts, the very essence of their being, are threatened. Widely idolised till now, with even those trampling it claiming to uphold it,
- almost all turned rapidly into autocracies. We Indians could long claim shining exception, but the ease with which the Emergency could be imposed is warning enough how fragile our version is.
- Our security challenges become more complex while both our conceptual and procedural drawbacks retard our response-capabilities.
9.Which of the following sentences should be the FIFTH after rearrangement?
10.Which of the following sentences should be the FIRST after rearrangement?
11.Which of the following sentences should be the SIXTH(LAST) after rearrangement?
12.Which of the following sentences should be the FOURTH after rearrangement?
13.Which of the following sentences should be the SECOND after rearrangement?