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English: Cloze Test For Upcoming Bank Exams

Directions: In the passage given below there are 10 blanks. Every blank has A PAIR OF four alternative words given in options first 4 options. You have to tell which PAIR is APPROPRIATE according to the context. Mark that appropriate pair as your answer. If none of the options is appropriate, mark ‘None of these’.

In finance, things that grow very fast have an __1__ tendency to blow up. American subprime mortgages prior to 2008, southern European sovereign debt in the run-up to 2010 and Japanese banks in the 1980s are but recent examples. So it is worrying that bank lending in emerging markets has __2__ in recent years, from about 77% of GDP in 2007 to 128% at the beginning of this year, according to JP Morgan Chase, a rich-world bank. That 51-percentage-point jump __3__ the mere 20-point rise in credit in the rich world in 2002-07.

Now that the economic prospects of emerging markets have__4__, banks from Shanghai to São Paulo are in the spotlight. Trouble in such places would once barely have registered in global financial circles. In 1990 only three of the world’s 100 biggest lenders by assets were in developing countries. Now the world’s four biggest banks are in China, and the fifth-biggest, HSBC, does much of its business from Hong Kong. More than a third of the world’s biggest banks have their headquarters in emerging markets, and plenty of rich-country firms (such as Standard Chartered, based in London, or BBVA, a Spanish bank) operate there.

Banks that have expanded at such a rapid __5__ in the past have typically issued more than a few __6__ loans along the way, and stretched their balance-sheets beyond comfort. Happily, regulators have learned the lessons of past crises in most emerging markets, so systemic __7__ is unlikely. It is the banks’ ability to finance a return to rapid economic growth that is in doubt.

The Institute of International Finance, a trade group, predicts that 2015 will be the first year of net capital __8__ from emerging markets since 1988. The good news is that emerging-market banks have little trouble funding themselves. Many emerging economies, especially in Asia, have high savings rates. That leaves most lenders with more deposits than loans, even though loans have been growing faster of late. Rich-country banks, in contrast, have to make up for a shortage of deposits by tapping __9__ wholesale markets, leaving them more vulnerable to sudden changes in sentiment.

If liquidity is not an issue, solvency may be. Banks in emerging markets tend to be profitable: the listed ones generated net income of $563 billion last year, up from $94 billion a decade ago. Unlike their Western __10__, few have investment-banking arms, which have attracted profit-sapping regulation and fines from watchdogs.


    1. attractive, exasperating
    2. vexatious, narcotic
    3. irksome, troublesome
    4. pleasing, tedious
    5. None of these
    1. lathered, amplified
    2. ballooned, balled
    3. fizzed, deflated
    4. heaved, abridged
    5. None of these
    1. runts, shorts
    2. maximizes, atrophies
    3. gaints, fairies
    4. dwarfs, elves
    5. None of these
    1. clouded, incandescent
    2. eclipsed, lustrous
    3. obscured, ablaze
    4. dimmed , shaded
    5. None of these
    1. clip , clasp
    2. prune, amplify
    3. lop, extend
    4. fastener, lengthen
    5. None of these
    1. turkey, success
    2. fiasco, triumph
    3. dud , flop
    4. fizzle, smash
    5. None of these
    1. chaos, hierarchy
    2. clutter, order
    3. tumult, serenity
    4. turmoil , disorder
    5. None of these
    1. barrages, irks
    2. effusions, inflows
    3. affluences, incomes
    4. outflows , fluxes
    5. None of these
    1. fickle , capricious
    2. volatile, dependable
    3. persistent, staunch
    4. aware, certain
    5. None of these
    1. inferiors, fellows
    2. earls, gazes
    3. peers , peeks
    4. stares, jury
    5. None of these
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